Concluding the Pew report (pg 36) on the US prison population is a graph depicting incarceration rates for selected countries. The US is situated on top, with a rate of 750 people per 100,000 locked up. In a distant second is Russia, with 628 per. The rest of the countries listed, with the exception of Azerbaijan and Turkey, are European.
The US is distinct from its European counterparts in a way that invariably leads to it performing poorly by most any comparitve measure of social pathologies. That distinction is that 28% of the US population is black or Hispanic. If members of these groups were incarcerated at the same rate as whites are, the US drops to 402 per 100,000 people*.
That puts the US next to Georgia, below Russia and Belarus. Still near the top and higher than Western Europe, due to mandatory sentencing guidelines and harsh punishments for drug-related offenses relative to those meted out on the Old Continent, but within the broader European range instead of towering above it.
* This assumes that Asians are incarcerated at the same rate as whites. The Pew report does not make mention of this inconvenient group once in 37 pages. If the prison rate for Asians is assumed to be the same rate relative to whites as the violent crime rate is, while blacks and Hispanics are assumed to land in jail at the same rate as whites, the national rate drops to 389 people per 100,000.